A FIGURE OF THE TEACHER AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURIES IN THE FRAMEWORK OF PEDAGOGICAL CONGRESSES (1902-1903)
Keywords:collaboration, life-long education, pedagogical congress, professional development, supervision, trade union, training.
The dynamics of changes in attitude to the teacher at the turn of 19-20 centuries in comparison with the second half of the 19th century is considered in the article. The range of difficult issues the teachers faced during that period and the shift of emphasis due to the benefit of the teachers are outlined. The background of modern trade unions creation is researched. The practical outcomes of Teacher Mutual Societies that have defended the interests of teachers in that difficult time are estimated. The changes in the rules and content of pedagogical congresses at the turn of the century are considered.
We think that the first congress of Teacher Mutual Societies was unique, because never before the teachers had an opportunity to gather and discuss the issues that are specific and very important for them. The teacher was not treated as an "instrument of production" any more, but s/he was found to be worth being listened to and treated as the person whose interests should also be taken into account. It was noted that the effectiveness of teaching and educational process depends not only on professional skills of the teachers, but also on their living standards, level of freedom and opportunity to collaborate with peers. The subject of the first congress of Teacher Mutual Societies covered the teacher’s personality; requirements s/he has due to his/her professional development, self-improvement; tools to improve the financial conditions of the teacher; the legal status of the people’s teacher as a social educator. During this congress the need for collectivist supervision was declared for the first time. The delegates of the congress emphasized the inappropriateness of unfair dismissal of the teachers without proper investigation.
Василевич В. Московский съезд представителей учительських обществ взаимопомощи 28.12.1902 – 06.01.1903 г. / В. Василевич. – М.: Типография Т-ва И. Д. Сытина. – 1905. – 171 с.
Временные правила о съездах учащих в начальних народних училищах (1899) – ЦДІА України, ф. 707, оп. 227, спр. 111, арк.2.
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